If your top-loading washer is not spinning, it could be due to a faulty lid switch, broken motor coupling, broken drive belt or possibly a problem with the motor or transmission itself.
WARNING! Before attempting to work on any appliance, make sure that all power (electricity) and utilities (water and gas) have been turned off and/or disconnected on the appliance. Read this before you start any repair.
The lid switch is a safety device that will prevent the washer from spinning if the lid is open. If the lid to the washer is shut, but your washer is not spinning, test this part with a multimeter to see if it is defective.
Since this part is easy to access, test it first. The other parts will require disassembling parts of the washer or laying the washer on the ground in order to access parts underneath the tub.
Bonus Tip: When working on a top-loading washer, use tape to secure the lid shut before you lay it down to access parts underneath it.
Drive Motor Coupling (motor coupler)
If you hear your washer making noise, but not spinning, it might be due to a bad motor coupler. This part sits between the motor and transmission and connects these two parts. Over time, the motor coupling can wear out or crack and will need to be replaced. The motor coupling can also break due to an overloaded machine. This part is designed to break in order to protect the motor and transmission, so try not to overload your machine.
A broken or loose belt could be the reason why your washer is not spinning. The drive belt is connected to the motor and transmission in order to rotate the agitator and tub. Visually inspect the belt to see if it is broken and use your fingers to press on the belt to test the tension it has on other parts, like the idler pulley.
The clutch assembly locks the transmission shaft to the washer basket in order to spin the basket at the proper speed. If your washer is not spinning, or your laundry is soaking wet after the spin cycle is complete, this might be a sign that your clutch assembly is worn and needs replacing.
The clutch assembly sits above the transmission. To access it, you need to remove the bolt and agitator from inside your top load washer before accessing the transmission and the clutch, from underneath the washer tub.
The transmission turns the drum on your washer and also transitions the washer through its cycles. Signs that your transmission is defective or going bad: a washer that will not drain or spin, a burning smell, or a whining noise during operation.